Interlinings, also called interfacing, are generally
nonwoven fabrics that add more structure and body to
garment components like collars, button plackets,
waistbands, and cuffs. Interlinings may be fusible or
sew-on. Interlining fabric durability is important
for garment construction. Fusible interfacing can become
unglued from fabric and shift, creating rippling,
puckering, and unevenness. Hence, the fusible interfacing
should be tested for their performance for defects such as
cracking, bubbling, and delamination during their regular
use. Fusible interfacings are susceptible to the adhesive
bleeding through causing darker spots on the surface
called strike-through. Fusible interlinings are assessed
for their ability to stay bonded to the fashion fabric and
not shift during wear and cleaning. They are also tested
for compatibility and shrinkage. Compatibility indicates
good drapability, bulk, and support of the fabric at the
attachment point. Shrinkage can cause puckering of the
attached point and bubbled appearance. The three
parameters such as temperature, pressure, and time should
be appropriately selected to avoid improper interlining
However the quality of the face fabrics and
non woven interlining used in
making samples does not always conform to the materials
delivered for production. The face fabrics and their
interlinings must therefore be tested again to verify the
previously accepted fusing parameters.
One of the first successful applications of nonwovens was
as interlinings for clothing (Assent, 2003). Nonwovens are
still widely used for this purpose but are also used as
the main material for protective clothing (Haase, 2003)
and increasingly as the outer layer in fashion-based and
technical garments (University of Leeds, 2007). The
making-up of nonwovens is therefore an important
consideration. Patterning, cutting and joining are
considered very basically here.
Nonwovens for interlinings are processed in such a way as
to give them an adhesive surface. The patterns for these
nonwovens are designed and made together with the patterns
for the upper fabric and garment lining during the pattern
design and grading stages. Table 8.2 outlines the
functional aspects of nonwovens that impact on their
performance as interlinings, and highlights the stages of
fabric production that affect these aspects.
Fusing of interlinings in garment manufacturing is a very
important process. Interlinings are the accessories used
between two layers of fabric to keep the different
components of apparel in a desired shape or to improve the
aesthetics and/or performance. Generally, interlinings are
soft, thick, and flexible fabric made of cotton, nylon,
polyester, wool and viscose or their blends, which may be
coated with some resins. There are two types of
double dot non woven interlining in use in the
garment production: fusible and non fusible. The
interlinings are carefully selected so that they can
withstand the conditions during the fabric care and
maintenance without any damage during the useful life of a
garment. Once the garments are finished and inspected,
they are packaged and transported to the retailers or the
point of sale to the consumers.
The garment construction and type, notably the number and
type of seams, linings and interlinings as well as cut and
style, clearly play a significant role in the draped
appearance of the garment, the presence, nature and
bonding of interlinings, etc. having a major effect. So
too will the fabric colour, depth of shade and pattern
have a significant effect, although these effects are
essentially optical in nature and not due to actual
changes in the fabric drape per se. With respect to the
effects of seams, including seam and stitch type, these
have been studied and reviewed in detail by Chung,12 Hu17
and Sharrouf,36 their main effects being on the stiffness
(both bending and shear) of the fabric in their immediate
vicinity and on their positioning within the garment.
The garment construction and type – notably the number,
positioning and type of seams, linings and interlinings –
as well as cut and style, play significant roles in the
draped appearance of the garment, with the presence,
nature and bonding of interlinings having a major effect.
Fabric colours, depths of shade and patterns also have
significant effects, although these are essentially
optical in nature and not due to actual changes in the
fabric drape per se. Seams mainly affect fabric stiffness
(both bending and shear) in their immediate vicinity, the
magnitude of the effect depending on their positioning
within the garment. For example, bending length tends to
increase with the insertion of a vertical seam, while
drape coefficient increases with the addition of radial
seams, and increasing the seam allowance has little
The most important factor for performing qualitative
fusing is temperature. It must correspond to the glue line
temperature, required for the certain interlining.
However, the temperature setting or reading on the control
panel of a fusing press indicates its belt temperature,
not the temperature applied to the interlining. The real
temperature that will be delivered to the interlining
through the face fabric can be determined only during the
test. It can be performed putting special temperature
control tape in-between the face fabric and its
interlining sample and fusing them. The colour of the tape
will show the real temperature applied to the interlining.
The optimal fusing temperature must be found for every
fabric of the order to avoid its shrinkage or damaging
during the fusing process.
Normal cotton sheeting fabrics were applied with a
layer of adhesive that can be fixed to the shell fabric by
application of heat or pressure. This formed a composite
part of the fused shell part and supported the outer shell
for better drape and look.
Woven interlinings are
majorly 100% cotton based with a thread density of
variable count as required for the weight or stiffness
needed for a particular use. Now poly-cotton blends are
also available to overcome the problems of shrinkage faced
in cotton fabrics together with a variety of warp and weft
combination like rayon, texturized poly and wool etc.
Advantages of woven interlining
The main advantage of woven fabrics is its strength and
stability, hence used for all such applications where
strength and stability are needed like the waistband.
However, this could be a disadvantage at times where
flexibility and soft hand feel is required.
Woven is majorly plain weaves, sometimes crepe,
herringbone or twill weaves are also offered according to
the application need.
In such cases, texturized poly yarns are used for
voluminous body, soft and natural hand feel or drape of
the fused composite at the same time strength, flexibility
and lightweight of the fused laminate is achieved without
much altering the natural drape or texture of shell
However, woven is expensive and not suitable for less
expensive casual garments hence, it was replaced by
knitted fabrics that used a combination of synthetic yarns
with rayon and wool for body and volume according to
different application intended for.
As the name implies there is no involvement of any yarn
for interlacement to make the fabric.
It is made directly from fiber to fabric stage in the
process reducing the cost of base fabric. As there is no
yarn used in making nonwovens, it lacks in strength needed
for apparel use and there are many techniques applied to
impart required strength to nonwoven textiles, called
Bonding. They are the most versatile product available
from 10gsm to 200gsm and above, offering light, soft,
flexible or strong for any application one can think of.
The basic manufacturing technique is using mostly
synthetic fibers to form a layer, which are imparted
strength by bonding.
Let us understand the different layering and bonding
methods, their use and their advantages and disadvantages.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect
of pressing on bending rigidities of the face fabric,
adhesive paste dot non woven interlining and
bonded composite fabric and verify the prediction method
for bending rigidity of those. Predicting methods of
bending rigidity for composite with face fabric and
adhesive interlining based on laminated theory were
verified with measured bending rigidities and thickness of
samples. Bending rigidities and thicknesses of woven
fabrics, adhesive interlinings and composites with those
were measured by the KES-FB system.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film was used for measuring
mechanical properties of pressed adhesive interlining.
Bending rigidities of adhesive interlinings became larger
and thicknesses were reduced compared to those before
pressing. Bending rigidities of face fabrics didn’t
change though the thicknesses became thinner than before
pressing. It was found that the case of considering
mechanical properties of pressed face fabric and pressed
interlining was more efficient to predict bending rigidity
of composite with laminated model.
- Created: 18-11-21
- Last Login: 18-11-21